- Microlaryngoscopy – under general anesthesia, go through the mouth to evaluate and potentially treat the causes of hoarseness, stridor, or difficulty in breathing in the area from the lips to the trachea.
- Bronchoscopy – under general anesthesia, go through the mouth to evaluate and potentially treat the cause of hoarseness, stridor, or difficulty in breathing, or remove foreign bodies from the lower trachea and smaller airway passages leading to the lungs.
- Removal of tumors and cysts in and around the airway.
- Laryngotracheal reconstruction – either expand or remove narrowed areas of the airway to mprove breathing.
- Tracheostomy – make an incision through the neck skin and into the trachea, placing a plastic tube directly into the airway to treat severe airway obstruction.